Daily Free Books
Free eBook Filters

Keyword(s)

Content
Genres
Settings
Save These Filter Settings

All of the filters are bookmarkable too, so you can also bookmark any page and the filter settings will be kept when you return to the bookmark

Subscribe to get free eBooks every day

Free Kindle eBooks | Science & Math |

Showing Free eBook 1-30 of 430
  1 2 3 4 5  Next

Rating: 5.00 / 5
5 reviews

Healing Of The Earth

by THOMAS MEDONIS

Some strange philosophy!...

Genre: Health, Fitness & Dieting, Alternative Medicine, Self-Help, Spiritual, Professional & Technical, Medical eBooks, Nonfiction, Science & Math
Size: 13 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 4.00 / 5
4 reviews

Water and Los Angeles: A Tale of Three Rivers, 1900-1941

by William F. Deverell and Tom Sitton

A free ebook version of this title is available through Luminos, University of California Press’s Open Access publishing program for monographs. Visit www.luminosoa.org to learn more.   Los Angeles rose to significance in the first half of the twentieth century by way of its complex relationship to three rivers: the Los Angeles, the Owens, and the Colorado. The remarkable urban and suburban trajectory of southern California since then cannot be fully understood without reference to the ways in which each of these three river systems came to be connected to the future of the metropolitan region. This history of growth must be understood in full consideration of all three rivers and the challenges and opportunities they presented to those who would come to make Los Angeles a global power....

Genre: History, Americas, United States, Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Professional Science, Science & Math, Nature & Ecology
Size: 170 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

My Manic Diary

by Sylvia Toy St Louis

This diary was created in February and March, 2015, approximately 3 months before I planned to retire from dayjob. I believe each of us is emotionally ready to retire at different points in our lives. I was ready in 2012, so, by 2014, I was counting the days. After I woke up manic on February 28, 2015, I knew it was time to retire from dayjob because I am too old to have a professional dayjob simultaneous with a professional art career on 3 hours of sleep per night. I retired on March 27, 2015, long enough for my employer to find a replacement. Finally, the 40 to 60 hours per week I’ve put into making art (sculpture, theatre, video) for 3o years is happening 9 to 5. I tried to keep the diary in as raw a state as possible, so there has been only minimal editing for formatting and clarity....

Genre: Biographies & Memoirs, Arts & Literature, Professionals & Academics, Health, Fitness & Dieting, Psychology & Counseling, Professional & Technical, Medical eBooks, Nonfiction, Science & Math, Teen & Young Adult, Biography
Size: 27 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 3.00 / 5
3 reviews

Physical (A)Causality: Determinism, Randomness and Uncaused Events (Fundamental Theories of Physics Book 192)

by Karl Svozil

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This book addresses the physical phenomenon of events that seem to occur spontaneously and without any known cause. These are to be contrasted with events that happen in a (pre-)determined, predictable, lawful, and causal way. All our knowledge is based on self-reflexive theorizing, as well as on operational means of empirical perception. Some of the questions that arise are the following: are these limitations reflected by our models? Under what circumstances does chance kick in? Is chance in physics merely epistemic? In other words, do we simply not know enough, or use too crude levels of description for our predictions? Or are certain events "truly", that is, irreducibly, random? The book tries to answer some of these questions by in...

Genre: Nonfiction, Politics & Social Sciences, Philosophy, Professional & Technical, Professional Science, Science & Math, History & Philosophy, Mathematics, Physics
Size: 219 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

A Critical Approach to Climate Change Adaptation: Discourses, Policies and Practices (Routledge Advances in Climate Change Research)

by Silja Klepp

This edited volume brings together critical research on climate change adaptation discourses, policies, and practices from a multi-disciplinary perspective. Drawing on examples from countries including Colombia, Mexico, Canada, Germany, Russia, Tanzania, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands, the chapters describe how adaptation measures are interpreted, transformed, and implemented at grassroots level and how these measures are changing or interfering with power relations, legal pluralismm and local (ecological) knowledge. As a whole, the book challenges established perspectives of climate change adaptation by taking into account issues of cultural diversity, environmental justicem and human rights, as well as feminist or intersectional approaches. This innovative approach allows for analyse...

Genre: Business & Investing, Economics, Nonfiction, Science & Math, Environment, Earth Sciences, Politics & Social Sciences
Size: 324 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 5.00 / 5
5 reviews

Simplified Mathematics: A Book for High Schools and Colleges

by Kingsley Augustine

This is a mathematics book which is suitable for students in high schools or secondary schools. It will also serve as a useful tool for students who are preparing for entrance examinations into colleges and universities. Students in the higher institutions taking 'lighter' courses in mathematics will also find this maths book useful, especially when there is need for improved mathematical foundation for such students.The step by step explanations presented in the worked examples are easy to study since care was taken to sufficiently explain salient points and mathematical ideas. Efforts have been made to achieve a complete and simplified explanation of every example given in this eBook. Many worked examples have been included in each topic in order to fully cover every complexity the topic...

Genre: Nonfiction, Education & Reference, Test Preparation, Science & Math, Education, Mathematics
Size: Unknown
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 5.00 / 5
5 reviews

Algebra, Arithmetic, Numbers and Numeration: A Mathematics Book for High Schools and Colleges

by Kingsley Augustine

This is a mathematics book which is suitable for students in high schools or secondary schools and students in colleges. It will also serve as a useful tool for students who are preparing for entrance examinations into colleges and universities. Students in the higher institutions taking 'lighter' courses in mathematics will also find this maths book useful, especially when there is need for improved mathematical foundation for such students.The step by step explanations presented in the worked examples are easy to study since care was taken to sufficiently explain salient points and mathematical ideas. Efforts have been made to achieve a complete and simplified explanation of every example given in this textbook. Many worked examples have been included in each topic in order to fully cove...

Genre: Children's eBooks, Education & Reference, Nonfiction, Test Preparation, Science & Math, Mathematics, Children's Nonfiction
Size: Unknown
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 1.90 / 5
2 reviews

The Logical Proof of The Existence of God: by God's Advocate: God defended the victims from THE BEGINNING

by Dan Anghel

THIS TITLE IS ENROLLED IN KINDLE MATCHBOOK, IF YOU BUY THE PAPERBACK YOU GET THE EBOOK FOR FREE.***Whoever denies the reason, that proves the existence of God, denies his own sins.***Whoever despises the moral of forgiveness, will be saturated by the justice.***The Holy Infinite Love of God, is our Judge and Savior, in the same time. Be Holy!***Whoever despises the law or the word of God, will become a slave of the law or the lies of the jungle.***Heaven means eternal gratitude.If you will sincerely thank God for every sunshine of every morning, you will be every morning in Paradise.For the Paradise is like an eternal calm full of peaceful light, morning.***The difference between heaven and hell is just a thought.***Only small people cannot forgive small mistakes.***A House divided cannot ...

Genre: Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Professional Science, Religion & Spirituality, Christianity, Religious Studies, Science & Math, Physics
Size: 114 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Investigating the Body in the Victorian Asylum: Doctors, Patients, and Practices (Mental Health in Historical Perspective)

by Jennifer Wallis

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This book explores how the body was investigated in the late nineteenth-century asylum in Britain. As more and more Victorian asylum doctors looked to the bodily fabric to reveal the ‘truth’ of mental disease, a whole host of techniques and technologies were brought to bear upon the patient's body. These practices encompassed the clinical and the pathological, from testing the patient's reflexes to dissecting the brain. Investigating the Body in the Victorian Asylum takes a unique approach to the topic, conducting a chapter-by-chapter dissection of the body. It considers how asylum doctors viewed and investigated the skin, muscles, bones, brain, and bodily fluids. The book demonstrates the importance of the body in nineteenth-century ...

Genre: Health, Fitness & Dieting, Psychology & Counseling, History, Historical Study, Professional & Technical, Medical eBooks, Nonfiction, Professional Science, Science & Math, History & Philosophy
Size: 276 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 18 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 5.00 / 5
5 reviews

Punishing the Criminal Corpse, 1700-1840: Aggravated Forms of the Death Penalty in England (Palgrave Historical Studies in the Criminal Corpse and its Afterlife)

by Peter King

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 licence. This book analyses the different types of post-execution punishments and other aggravated execution practices, the reasons why they were advocated, and the decision, enshrined in the Murder Act of 1752, to make two post-execution punishments, dissection and gibbeting, an integral part of sentences for murder. It traces the origins of the Act, and then explores the ways in which Act was actually put into practice. After identifying the dominance of penal dissection throughout the period, it looks at the abandonment of burning at the stake in the 1790s, the rapid decline of hanging in chains just after 1800, and the final abandonment of both dissection and gibbeting in 1832 and 1834. It concludes that the Act, by creating differentiation in...

Genre: History, Europe, Historical Study, Professional & Technical, Law, Nonfiction, Politics & Social Sciences, Crime & Criminals, Professional Science, Science & Math, History & Philosophy
Size: 212 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Executing Magic in the Modern Era: Criminal Bodies and the Gallows in Popular Medicine (Palgrave Historical Studies in the Criminal Corpse and its Afterlife)

by Owen Davies and Francesca Matteoni

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 licenseThis book explores the magical and medical history of executions from the eighteenth to the early twentieth century by looking at the afterlife potency of criminal corpses, the healing activities of the executioner, and the magic of the gallows site. The use of corpses in medicine and magic has been recorded back into antiquity. The lacerated bodies of Roman gladiators were used as a source of curative blood, for instance. In early modern Europe, a great trade opened up in ancient Egyptian mummies and the fat of executed criminals, plundered as medicinal cure-alls. However, this is the first book to consider the demand for the blood of the executed, the desire for human fat, the resort to the hanged man’s hand, and the trade in hanging ro...

Genre: History, Europe, Historical Study, Nonfiction, Politics & Social Sciences, Crime & Criminals, Professional & Technical, Professional Science, Science & Math, History & Philosophy
Size: 118 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 4.00 / 5
4 reviews

Foundations of Trusted Autonomy (Studies in Systems, Decision and Control Book 117)

by Hussein A. Abbass

...

Genre: Computers & Technology, Microsoft, Programming, Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Engineering, Professional Science, Science & Math, Mathematics
Size: 395 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Nanoinformatics

by Isao Tanaka

This open access book brings out the state of the art on how informatics-based tools are used and expected to be used in nanomaterials research. There has been great progress in the area in which “big-data” generated by experiments or computations are fully utilized to accelerate discovery of new materials, key factors, and design rules. Data-intensive approaches play indispensable roles in advanced materials characterization. 'Materials informatics' is the central paradigm in the new trend. 'Nanoinformatics' is its essential subset, which focuses on nanostructures of materials such as surfaces, interfaces, dopants, and point defects, playing a critical role in determining materials properties. There have been significant advances in experimental and computational techniques to charact...

Genre: Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Engineering, Professional Science, Science & Math, Chemistry, Physics, Technology
Size: 298 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Entrepreneurial Cognition: Exploring the Mindset of Entrepreneurs

by Dean A. Shepherd

This open access book investigates the inter-relationship between the mind and a potential opportunity to explore the psychology of entrepreneurship. Building on recent research, this book offers a broad scope investigation of the different aspects of what goes on in the mind of the (potential) entrepreneur as he or she considers the pursuit of a potential opportunity, the creation of a new organization, and/or the selection of an entrepreneurial career. This book focuses on individuals as the level of analysis and explores the impact of the organization and the environment only inasmuch as they impact the individual’s cognitions. Readers will learn why some individuals and managers are able to able to identify and successfully act upon opportunities in uncertain environments while oth...

Genre: Business & Investing, Industries & Professions, Small Business & Entrepreneurship, Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Accounting & Finance, Professional Science, Science & Math, Behavioral Sciences
Size: 281 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies: From Science to Innovation

by Enrico Benetto

This book provides insight into the implementation of Life Cycle approaches along the entire business value chain, supporting environmental, social and economic sustainability related to the development of industrial technologies, products, services and policies; and the development and management of smart agricultural systems, smart mobility systems, urban infrastructures and energy for the built environment. The book is based on papers presented at the 8th International Life Cycle Management Conference that took place from September 3-6, 2017 in Luxembourg, and which was organized by the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) and the University of Luxembourg in the framework of the LCM Conference Series. This book is open access under a CC BY license...

Genre: Business & Investing, Economics, Nonfiction, Science & Math, Environment, Professional & Technical, Accounting & Finance, Engineering, Professional Science, Earth Sciences, Nature & Ecology, Physics
Size: 529 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Socioeconomics of Agriculture (SpringerBriefs in Economics)

by Stefan Mann

This open access book applies for the first time emerging concepts of socioeconomics to analyse an economic sector, namely agriculture. It considers the rational choices of all actors in the system (just as agricultural economists do) and their cultural preferences and constraints (just as rural sociologists do). Socioeconomic concepts are subsequently used to structure agricultural issues with regard to the three governance mechanisms (hierarchy, markets, and cooperation), and different agricultural systems are presented and compared. The book will be of interest to social scientists with various backgrounds, and seeks to break down the barriers of single-disciplinary thinking....

Genre: Business & Investing, Industries & Professions, Nonfiction, Politics & Social Sciences, Social Sciences, Professional & Technical, Accounting & Finance, Professional Science, Science & Math, Agricultural Sciences
Size: 106 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Earth Observation Open Science and Innovation (ISSI Scientific Report Series Book 15)

by Pierre-Philippe Mathieu

This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.Over  the  past  decades,  rapid developments in digital and sensing technologies, such  as the Cloud, Web and Internet of Things, have dramatically changed the way we live and work. The digital transformation is revolutionizing our ability to monitor our planet and transforming the  way we access, process and exploit Earth Observation data from satellites.This book reviews these megatrends and their implications for the Earth Observation community as well as the wider data economy. It provides insight into new paradigms of Open Science and Innovation applied to space data, which are characterized by openness, access to large volume of complex data, wide availability of new community tools, new techniques for big data analy...

Genre: Computers & Technology, Databases, Microsoft, Software, Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Engineering, Professional Science, Science & Math, Astronomy & Space Science, Earth Sciences
Size: 332 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Solar Particle Radiation Storms Forecasting and Analysis: The HESPERIA HORIZON 2020 Project and Beyond (Astrophysics and Space Science Library Book 444)

by Olga E. Malandraki and Norma B. Crosby

Solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. This book presents the results and findings of the HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events forecasting and Analysis) project of the EU HORIZON 2020 programme. It discusses the forecasting operational tools developed within the project, and presents progress to SEP research contributed by HESPERIA both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. Using multi-frequency observational data and simulations HESPERIA investigated the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space, to the detection near 1 AU. The book also elaborates on the un...

Genre: Nonfiction, Science & Math, Environment, Professional & Technical, Professional Science, Astronomy & Space Science, Earth Sciences
Size: 203 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Hyper cars of future: Super cars

by Allex William

...

Genre: Children's eBooks, Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Engineering, Professional Science, Science & Math, Technology
Size: 1.42 mb
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Anxiety Cure Workbook : 3 Quick Steps To Stop Anxiety Attacks Now (The Blokehead Success Series)

by Heather Rose

In order for you to deal with anxiety you need to learn how to deal with things better. Everybody has emotional stress in their lives at some point but what separates people that suffer with anxiety disorders and those that don’t are how they cope and deal with those emotional stresses.Grab the book to learn more!...

Genre: Health, Fitness & Dieting, Psychology & Counseling, Professional & Technical, Medical eBooks, Nonfiction, Professional Science, Science & Math
Size: 28 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 17 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (Regional Climate Studies)

by Markus Quante and Franciscus Colijn

...

Genre: Nonfiction, Science & Math, Environment, Professional & Technical, Engineering, Biological Sciences, Nature & Ecology
Size: 528 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 16 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

YEAST INFECTIONS IN MEN: NEED TO KNOW

by Alwin Jijo Mariamuthiah

This book briefly explains about yeast infection especially their causes, symptoms , prevention and treatments etc....

Genre: Professional & Technical, Medical eBooks, Professional Science, Science & Math, Genre Fiction, Medical
Size: 6 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 16 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

An Introduction to Employee Assistance Programs

by NetCE

Employee assistance work is different from traditional therapy, and an EAP clinician should be prepared to address workplace impact during assessment and counseling sessions. The purpose of this course is to provide social workers, counselors, and therapists with a comprehensive overview of an employee assistance program (EAP), including the core technology, history, referral and assessment processes, and confidentiality requirements. In addition, members of the public may use this course to enhance their personal knowledge of the subject matter presented.Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:1. Discuss the history of employee assistance programs (EAPs).2. Review EAP core technology.3. Differentiate EAPs from therapy.4. Discuss the problem of dual EAP clients.5. Identify EA...

Genre: Professional & Technical, Medical eBooks, Nonfiction, Education & Reference, College & University, Professional Science, Science & Math
Size: 89 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 16 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Biomagnetism

by Dr. Douglas M. Baker

As medical advisor for the de la Warr Laboratories, Oxford, England, Dr Douglas Baker possessed many innovative ideas in relation to the application of esoteric knowledge to areas of medical science and research. This book details the research undertaken by Dr Baker and George de la Warr in the 1960s into the effect of magnetic fields on living tissue and organs within the human body. In the 1960's, the idea that magnetism could affect living tissue was generally derided by the scientific community. In the twenty-first century, it is now accepted that living tissue is responsive to the application of variable, low frequency magnetic fields. Using solenoids as a method of applying magnetic fields of varying frequency to various anatomical sites, the collaborative research of these medical p...

Genre: Nonfiction, Science & Math, Biological Sciences, Education, Experiments, Instruments & Measurement
Size: 92 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 16 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 4.30 / 5
4 reviews

Diabetes: The Most Effective Ways and Step by Step Guide to Reverse Diabetes: (Diabetes, Diabetes Diet, Lower Blood Sugar, Diabetes free, Diabetes Cure, Reversing Diabetes)

by David Corr

Learn how you can Reverse your Diabetes Starting Today
Diabetes as a disease is becoming much more prevalent thanks to the increase in poor lifestyle choices.
Diabetes is often called a silent disease because it isn't one that is often visible, many sufferers don''t even know they have it, it is a very serious condition that if left unattended can cause a number of problems including blurry vision, skin infections, yeast infections, weight loss, and it can cause secondary issues like poor circulation, heart disease, and even death through diabetic coma.
This book has been created so that people can avoid these issues and live a happy life, as you read through this book you will be guided to learn the most effective ways to reverse and avoid diabetes.
Here is a previ...

Genre: Health, Fitness & Dieting, Disorders & Diseases, Professional & Technical, Medical eBooks, Nonfiction, Professional Science, Science & Math, Experiments, Instruments & Measurement
Size: 35 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 16 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 4.20 / 5
4 reviews

Skinwalker Ranch: Facing the Unknown Force that Haunts the Uinta Basin (Paranormal and Unexplained Phenomena Book 1)

by Conrad Bauer

...

Genre: Nonfiction, Politics & Social Sciences, Social Sciences, Professional & Technical, Professional Science, Religion & Spirituality, Occult, Science & Math, Astronomy & Space Science
Size: 86 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 16 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 5.00 / 5
5 reviews

On The Human Species: A Philosophy on Reason and the Emergence of Civilized Humanity

by Anthony Pellegrino

On the Human Species is a philosophical and psychological discourse that charts the origin and evolution of our species. The book is an inspired combination of science and philosophy, a brilliant canvas of intellectual thought and discerning anthropology.In this work, Mr. Pellegrino delves within the origin of our species from the conception of reason to the creation of religion. The book also explains human emotions, the origin of vice, and an illusory morality that manifests itself as accountability, but also differentiates our species from the remainder of the animal kingdom....

Genre: Nonfiction, Politics & Social Sciences, Philosophy, Science & Math, History & Philosophy
Size: 130 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 15 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 4.20 / 5
4 reviews

Truth, Lies & Statistics: How to Lie with Statistics (Bite-Size Stats Series Book 1)

by Lee Baker

Pirates, cats, Mexican lemons and North Carolina lawyers. Cheese consumption, margarine and drowning by falling out of fishing boats. This book has got it all.A roller coaster of a book in 8 witty chapters, this might just be the most entertaining statistics book you’ll read this year.Did you know that pirates caused global warming, and that a statistical lie gave rise to one of the fastest growing religions on the planet? Probably not – you might have missed the memo that day. Did you also know that organic food is the real cause of autism, and that Mexican lemons are a major cause of deaths on American roads? They’re true, honest – and this book has got the stats to prove it.In this eye-opening book, award winning statistician and author Lee Baker uncovers the key tricks of the t...

Genre: Business & Investing, Economics, Nonfiction, Professional & Technical, Accounting & Finance, Professional Science, Science & Math, Mathematics
Size: 62 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 15 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Climate Change and Natural Disasters: Transforming Economies and Policies for a Sustainable Future

by Vinod Thomas

...

Genre: Business & Investing, Economics, Nonfiction, Politics & Social Sciences, Politics & Government, Science & Math, Environment, Earth Sciences
Size: 184 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 15 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

Rating: 5.00 / 5
5 reviews

Communicating Climate Change: A Guide for Educators (Cornell Series in Environmental Education)

by Anne K. Armstrong

Environmental educators face a formidable challenge when they approach climate change due to the complexity of the science and of the political and cultural contexts in which people live. There is a clear consensus among climate scientists that climate change is already occurring as a result of human activities, but high levels of climate change awareness and growing levels of concern have not translated into meaningful action. Communicating Climate Change provides environmental educators with an understanding of how their audiences engage with climate change information as well as with concrete, empirically tested communication tools they can use to enhance their climate change program.Starting with the basics of climate science and climate change public opinion, Armstrong, Krasny, and Sc...

Genre: Nonfiction, Education & Reference, Schools & Teaching, Science & Math, Environment, Professional & Technical, Professional Science, Earth Sciences
Size: 174 pages
Free eBook download for Kindle from 15 March 2019 onward PDT/PST 

  1 2 3 4 5  Next
Back To Top ^